Home | What's New | Our Services | Events & Activities | Career Opportunities | 4all.my | About Us | Contact Us
Encyclopaedia ->
Health Topics
First letter
Body System
Dictionary The Cardiovascular System


Synonyms :  High Blood Pressure

Clinical features, Diagnosis, Management, Prognosis, Nutrition, Herbs,

Hypertension is defined as an elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure above generally accepted normal level of up to 140/90 mm Hg for adults. However the average systolic and diastolic blood pressures gradually rise with age and some allowance has to be made for this when assessing suspected hypertension. 

Suggested guidelines for diagnosis of elevated blood pressure in adults (18 years and older) are as follows:

         Optimal blood pressure            < 120 systolic and <80 diastolic

         Normal blood pressure            <130 systolic and <85 diastolic

         High normal blood pressure            systolic 130-140 or diastolic 85-90

         Stage 1 hypertension (mild)             systolic 140-160 or diastolic 90-100

         Stage 2 hypertension (moderate)      systolic 160-180 or diastolic 100-110

         Stage 3 hypertension (severe)      systolic > 180 or diastolic > 110

Exercise, anxiety, discomfort and unfamiliar surroundings can all lead to a transient rise in blood pressure, and measurements should be repeated when the patient is resting and relaxed. For example office or white coat hypertension refers to blood pressure that is consistently elevated in the physician’s surgery but normal when measured at home. Patients who have a high blood pressure on first examination which subsequently settles with rest may not require treatment but should be kept under review because they are more likely to develop sustained hypertension. According to the guidelines, some 15% of general population (25% of adults) can be regarded as hypertensive, though only a proportion of these will be diagnosed or receive treatment.

In about 5-10% of cases, hypertension can be shown to be a consequence of a specific disease or abnormality, such as:

       Coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta, which can be a developmental abnormality or may occur in Turner’s syndrome in women (congenital chromosomal abnormality characterised by the absence of one X sex chromosome; therefore the genetic profile is 45 X0)

       Renal disease (chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic renal failure, renal artery stenosis)

       Endocrine disorders

phaeochromocytoma (a benign tumour characterised by hypersecretion of 

adrenaline and noradrenaline); the main feature is occasional episodes of palpitations, tremor, sweating, flushing and throbbing headache

            Cushing’s syndrome (hypersecretion of glucocorticosteroids)

            Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism)

            acromegaly (hypersecretion of growth hormone)


       Excessive consumption of alcohol

       Drugs (oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids) 

In the majority of patients with hypertension it is not possible to define a specific underlying cause, and they are said to have essential (idiopathic) hypertension. In 70% of such patients another member of the family is affected (positive family history). 

The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is not clearly understood. However, it is known that the underlying defect is increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Some believe that this is due to increase in sympathetic nervous activity while others believe that there is a fundamental defect in the vascular smooth muscle related to abnormal transport of ions across the cell membrane and increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation. Excessive water and sodium retention by the kidneys and deficiency of vasodilator substances (e.g., bradykinin) have also been suggested. 

Long-standing hypertension causes irreversible changes in peripheral blood vessels in form of arteriolosclerosis (concentric thickening of small arterial blood vessels) when high blood pressure is established permanently. This narrowing of blood vessels causes progressive ischaemia of tissues, which could be responsible for certain complications of hypertension especially in the retina and kidneys.

Clinical features:  < BACK TO TOP >

           Hypertension is often referred to as a “silent killer?because most patients initially remain asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is therefore usually made at routine examination.

           Occasionally headache or polyuria (abnormally large quantities of urine with frequent urination) appear; however most patients with hypertension do not get headaches.

           Complications occur in long standing cases giving rise to relevant symptoms:

    1. Central nervous system

    stroke (a major cause of death in hypertensive patients) caused by cerebral infarction or haemorrhage

    hypertensive encephalopathy, a rare condition characterised by a very high    

    blood pressure that leads to cerebral oedema and serious neurological symptoms such as severe headache, nausea, vomiting, transient disturbances of speech and vision, paraesthesiae (tingling), paresis (weakness) of muscles, convulsions and loss of consciousness

    2. Retina

    hypertensive retinopathy (progressive irreversible changes in the retina of the eye causing eventually visual field defects or even blindness)

    3. Heart

    left ventricular hypertrophy due to increased cardiac workload and in time left ventricular failure (so called hypertensive heart disease)

                        increased incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease

    4. Kidneys

    proteinuria and progressive chronic renal failure (the most common cause of chronic renal failure is diabetes mellitus, followed by long-standing hypertension)

Diagnosis:  < BACK TO TOP >

           Regular measurements of the blood pressure are necessary to establish the existence of hypertension with certainty; at least two blood pressure determinations should be taken on each of 3 consecutive days before a patient is diagnosed as hypertensive.

           Urine analysis for proteins (may indicate renal disease) and glucose (diabetes may coexist and is a risk factor for vascular disease) is routinely carried out; plasma urea/creatinine and creatinine clearance are measured to assess renal function.

           Plasma electrolytes can also provide important clues; hypokalaemic alkalosis may indicate primary (Conn’s syndrome) or secondary hyperaldosteronism (found in heart failure, liver cirrhosis and treatment with diuretic drugs).

           Plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL are also ordered because hypercholesterolaemia is an important risk factor for vascular disease.

           Chest X-ray can be used to detect cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart) or heart failure; ultrasound can be used to check for cardiac hypertrophy or signs of weakening of the heart.

           ECG can reveal left ventricular hypertrophy (hypertensive heart disease) and myocardial ischaemia in coronary heart disease.

           24-hour urine collection for metanephrine or vannylmandelic acid excretion (adrenaline metabolites) can be done if history suggests phaechromocytoma.

           Intravenous urogram (administration of a contrast medium which is excreted through the kidney and recording X-ray during this process) may be scheduled if renal disease is suspected.

           Radionuclide renography (similar to urogram but a radionuclide is given and radiation is detected by a gamma camera) is used to assess renal function.

Management  < BACK TO TOP >

           The object of treating systemic arterial hypertension is to reduce the risk of complications and to improve patient survival.

           General measures such as reducing alcohol consumption and intake of salt, correcting obesity, stopping smoking, taking regular exercise, avoiding stress, relaxation techniques, massage and aromatherapy alone may be sufficient in certain number of patients.

           Thiazide diuretics (bendrofluazide [Aprinox], hydrochlorothiazide [Diclotride] and cyclopenthiazide [Navidrex]) are effective but may take up to a month for the maximum effect to be observed (warning: these drugs may cause reversible male impotence, and also can worsen type II diabetes and gout).

           b1-adrenoceptor antagonists (atenolol [Tenormin, Anselol] and metoprolol [Betaloc, Lopressor]) reduce blood pressure by reducing cardiac output; a1/b-antagonists (e.g., carvedilol [Dilatrend]) work by reducing both cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance.

           Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (captopril [Capoten], enalapril [Renitec], lisinopril [Prinvil], fosinopril [Monopril], ramipril [Tritace, Ramace], perindopril [Coversyl]) have been a major advance in the treatment of hypertension (sometimes cause dry cough).

           Angiotensin II antagonists (losartan [Cozaar], irbesartan [Avapro] and telmisartan [Pritor, Micardis]) are the latest addition to antihypertensive treatment (their advantage over ACE inhibitors is that they don’t cause cough).

           Calcium antagonists (nifedipine [Adalat, Nifecard], verapamil [Isoptin, Cordilox, Veracaps], felodipine [Plenidil, Agon] and amlodipine [Norvasc]) are particularly useful when hypertension coexists with angina.

           a1-adrenoceptor antagonists such as prazosin [Minipress, Pressin], doxazosin [Carduran] and terazosin [Hytrin] reduce blood pressure by causing peripheral vasodilation.

Prognosis  < BACK TO TOP >


Nutrition < BACK TO TOP >

Nutrition that alleviate or prevent Hypertension :-

Herbs < BACK TO TOP >

Herbs that alleviate or prevent Hypertension :-

(source : -)

search this site the web

search engine by freefind


Powered by visit montaine home page

Thank You visiting MONTAINE

Welcome To Montaine
action activity adventure aerobic aerobics after age air alternative medicine amateur areas arthritis athletes backpack backpacking backpacks bad bag barbeque basecamp based bay before beginners being benefit best bike biking blonde bmi body bodybuilder bodybuilding brand building BUY calculate calculated calculation calculator calculators calories camp camping camps cardiorespiratory cardiovascular center centers centre centres certification chat chi circuit climb climbing club clubs college competition competitor components conservation consumed consumption count courses day http://www.montaine.com.my/dictionary.htm definition download education environmental equipment erotica excercise exercise exercises exercising explore euro 2004 event famous fat female figure find fires fit fitness fittness for force franchise free gallery gay get getfit given glutes green greatest group groups guide guides gym gyms health height hikers hiking home homepage how human ideal idealweight in increasing index injures injuries instructions intermediates iron is kl knowing layout link locations loosing male man map maps mass massage masseur maximuscle me measure metabolism miss model models morning mount mountain mountaineering mountains mt multiple multistage muscle muscular music naked natural therapy national near new night noon nutrition occupational of online olympics or out outdoor outdoors page pages Pain park parks people per personal phisical photo photos physical picture pictures pilates porn program programs rafting rainbows reaction real recommendations recreation recreational rehab rehabilitation rentals requirements results rock rooms running school schools sclerosis scoliosis sex sexy should site sites source spinal sport sports stars state statistics studio studios student swedish swim swimsuit team techniques test testing tests the therapeutic therapist therapy time tips to top trail trails trainer trainers training trip trips ultimate university visitor watching water web weekend weekends weigh weight what white whitewater women womens workout world your yout
Tsunami online Donations and Information Tsumani online Donations and Infomation We are closed from Feb 9 to Feb 13, 2005 and will resume business on Feb 14, 2005

Donation Drive:The New Straits Times, Berita Harian, TV3, 8TV Malaysian Tsunami Disaster Fund The Star Earthquake/Tsunami Relief Fund Subang/USJ Disaster Fund theSun Tsunami Emergency Supplies Fund Asian Tsunami Disaster Fund - by the Foreign Ministry Yayasan Sultanah Bahiyah Buddhist Maha Vihara - 123 Jalan Berhala, Brickfields 50470 KL -Tel: 03 2274 1141, Fax: 03 2273 2570

Chinese New Year 2005
3 days post Chinese New Year detox programme
Local News & Info: Missing Persons E-mail Appeals Tsunami Penang Blog iPenang Screenshots The Star Bernama Project Petaling Street TV Smith's Tsunami InTech: Bloggers fill the void

15 May 2009
19 June 2005
International Day of Families
Happy Father's Day
Animation Source : Minibyte Solutions

 sWorkshop探 访 各 类 癌 症 的 真 相10 June 2004 7:30am-8:30pmCall (603) 2713 9288 to reserve a seat
Charting Your Way to Success workshop Organised by JCI

Venue : Montaine Menara Weld Level 4 |

 Date  : 30th July 2004 Friday (6:30pm -8:00pm)

Organizer : JCI Kuala Lumpur |

 Contact    : Kelly 012-320 3350 & Ang 012-296 5138

 speaker Mr NgThian Watt the Principal Trainer from Napoleon Hill Associates MalaysiaDetails www.kljuniorchamber.org
Montaine's Health and Weight Management Programme
Call 012 201 8020 or 03 5636 6788 NOW

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
April Promotion
(Gift Voucher Available)
 - Spa Gateway - Beauty Gateway
Usual RM293 Now RM138

Queen of The Day  RM138 (2 hours)

          Full Body Exfoliation worth RM68 (30 minutes)

          Full Aromatherapy Massage worth RM128 (60 minutes)

          Full Body Detox Treatment worth RM128 (30 minutes)

   All For RM138Additional RM68 – Make Over (Evening Make Up)ecretary's Day Gift, Secretarie

Call 012 201 8020 or +603 5636 6788


Massage or Reflexology Package Buy 7 get 3 Free  (First 50 Customers or till 31 October 2004 Only, Hurry call 03 7710 5593 now!!)

Jobs vacancy
Customer Service Exec at Montaine centre

Salary RM1000 - RM4000 Female is preferable call KC at 012 201 8020

MONTAINE Slimming Programme
Have you ever wondered what life would be if you were ...!


MONTAINE Centre of Health and Wellness
kl, jb, jp, au, Africa Antarctica Arctic Asia Caribbean Europe North America Oceania South America Afghanistan Kabul Albania Tirana Algeria Algiers Andorra Andorra la Vella Angola Luanda Antigua and Barbuda St. John's Argentina Buenos Aires Armenia Yerevan Australia Canberra Austria Vienna Azerbaijan Baku a port on the Caspian Sea Bahamas Nassau Bahrain Al-Manámah Bangladesh Dhaka Barbados Bridgetown Belarus Mensk (Minsk) Belgium Brussels Belize Belmopan Benin Porto-Novo Bhutan Thimphu Bolivia Sucre ; Administrative capital: La Paz Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo(unofficial) Botswana Gaborone Brazil Brasília Brunei Darussalam Bandar Seri Begawan Bulgaria Sofia Burkina Faso Ouagadougou Burundi Bujumbura Cambodia Phnom Penh Cameroon Yaoundé Canada Ottawa Ontario Cape Verde Praia Central African Republic Bangui Chad N'Djamena Chile Santiago China Beijing Colombia Santafé de Bogotá Comoros Moroni Congo, Republic of Brazzaville Congo, Democratic Republic of the Kinshasa Costa Rica San José Côte d'Ivoire Yamoussoukro (official) Croatia Zagreb Cuba Havana Cyprus Lefkosia (Nicosia) (in government-controlled area) Czech Republic Prague Denmark Copenhagen Djibouti Djibouti Dominica Roseau Dominican Republic Santo Domingo East Timor Dili Ecuador Quito Egypt Cairo El Salvador San Salvador Equatorial Guinea Malabo Eritrea Asmara Estonia Tallinn Ethiopia Addis Ababa Fiji Suva (on Viti Levu) Finland Helsinki France Paris Gabon Libreville Gambia, The Banjul Georgia Tbilisi Germany Berlin (capital since Oct.) Ghana Accra Greece Athens Athens Grenada St. George's Guatemala Guatemala City Guinea Conakry Guinea-Bissau Bissau Guyana Georgetown Haiti Port-au-Prince Honduras Tegucigalpa Hungary Budapest Iceland Reykjavik India New Delhi Indonesia Jakarta Iran Teheran Iraq Baghdad Ireland Dublin Israel Jerusalem Italy Rome Jamaica Kingston Japan Tokyo Jordan Amman Kazakhstan Astana(formerly Aqmola; capital since ) Kenya Nairobi Kiribati Tarawa Korea, North Pyongyang Korea, South Seoul Kuwait Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Bishkek (formerly Frunze) Laos Vientiane Latvia Riga Lebanon Beirut Lesotho Maseru Liberia Monrovia Libya Tripoli Liechtenstein Vaduz Lithuania Vilnius Luxembourg Luxembourg Macedonia Skopje Madagascar Antananarivo Malawi Lilongwe Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Maldives Malé Mali Bamako Malta Valletta Marshall Islands Majuro Mauritania Nouakchott Mauritius Port Louis Mexico Mexico City Micronesia Palikir Moldova Chisinau Monaco Monaco Mongolia Ulaan Baatar Morocco Rabat Mozambique Maputo Myanmar Rangoon (Yangon) Namibia Windhoek Nauru Yaren Nepal Kathmandu The Netherlands Amsterdam (official) ; The Hague (administrative capital) New Zealand Wellington Nicaragua Managua Niger Niamey Nigeria Abuja Norway Oslo Oman Muscat Pakistan Islamabad Palau Koror Palestinian State (proposed) Undetermined Panama Panama City Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Paraguay Asunción Peru Lima The Philippines Manila Poland Warsaw Portugal Lisbon Qatar Doha Romania Bucharest Russia Moscow Rwanda Kigali St. Kitts and Nevis Basseterre (on St. Kitts) St. Lucia Castries St. Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown Samoa Apia San Marino San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé Saudi Arabia Riyadh Senegal Dakar Serbia and Montenegro Belgrade Seychelles Victoria Sierra Leone Freetown Singapore Singapore Slovakia Bratislava Slovenia Ljubljana Solomon Islands Honiara (on Guadalcanal) Somalia Mogadishu South Africa Pretoria; Legislative capital and largest city: Cape Town; Judicial capital: Bloemfontein . No decision has been made to relocate the seat of government. South Africa is demarcated into nine provinces consisting of the Gauteng Northern Province Mpumalanga North West KwaZulu/Natal Eastern Cape Western Cape Northern Cape and Free State. Each province has its own capital Spain Madrid Sri Lanka Colombo; Legislative and Judicial capital: Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Sudan Khartoum Suriname Paramaribo Swaziland Mbabane Sweden Stockholm Switzerland Bern Syria Damascus Taiwan Taipei Tajikistan Dushanbe Tanzania Dar es Salaam ; Official capital: Dodoma Thailand Bangkok Togo Lomé Tonga Nuku'alofa Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain Tunisia Tunis Turkey Ankara Turkmenistan Ashgabat Tuvalu Funafuti Uganda Kampala Ukraine Kyiv (Kiev) United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi United Kingdom London United States Washington DC Uruguay Montevideo Uzbekistan Tashkent Vanuatu Port Vila Venezuela Caracas Vietnam Hanoi Western Sahara (proposed state) El Aaiun Yemen Sanaá Zambia Lusaka Zimbabwe Harare




Health check and health consultation

Power health talks and seminars

Beauty and treatment sessions

Relaxation and sport massages

Weekly family bonding activities

Montaine outdoor activities

Fitness, self defence & leisure classes available

Fully equipped gym sets, steam, sauna, Jacuzzi

Personal trainers available.

Health drinks available.


Relaxation / Swedish Massage Remedial / Deep Tissue Massage Physiotherapy, Sport / Work-Related Injuries Stress / Anxiety Management Acupuncture, Shiatsu Aromatherapy / Essential Oils Reflexology Slimming and Weight loss Beauty and treatment sessions Ions Detox, Ozone Spa More....... Corporate Massage Mobile/home visit Hotels Montaine Center Massage Courses Montaine outdoor activities www.montaine.com.au

 Tel :  (+603) 5636 6788 www.montaine.com.my
 No 16, 1st Floor, Jalan PJS 11/28, Bandar Sunway, 46150, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel : (612) 9264 4567 www.montaine.com.my 23/203 Castlereagh St, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia